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1  Research / Research Topics / Lightning and the Runaway Breakdown Theory on: March 30, 2009, 07:59:56 AM
What is Lightning?

Ever since the first humans walked on Earth, we have been fascinated with lightning. It’s the greatest mystery and phenomena on earth. What is lightning? Where does it come from? How is lightning initiated? Unfortunately, as fascinated as we are about lightning, we are still unable to answer our own questions. Lightning strikes the Earth as least 4 million times worldwide each day. One strike of lightning is the brightest light we see, the loudest noise we hear, and has as much energy as a nuclear bomb. Despite these facts, we know more about distant cosmos that are millions of light years away, than how lightning propagates 6 miles above our heads. However, we are aware of the fact that lightning does occur inside thunderclouds. What we don’t know is how lightning is initiated. Several ideas and theories have been suggested, including colliding raindrops, localized regions of concentrated charge, and avalanches of high-energy electrons initiated by cosmic rays from outer space. At least for now, no one knows how lightning is triggered. This is why at Florida Tech, with the help of the University of Florida and New Mexico Tech, we’re currently performing experiments and research to answer these questions.

Different Types of Lightning

In order to better understand lightning, one must know the similarities and difference between the different types of lightning. Although there are nine types of lightning, we’ll take a look at the more common forms of lightning for the sake of convenience and understanding.

One type of lightning is called cloud discharge. This type of lightning, also called heat lightning, occurs within a thunder cloud, between two thunder clouds, or from a thunder to the air. As scientists, we believe that most cloud discharges take place within an individual cloud. However, we have collected very few data to confirm this belief. Cloud discharges are far more common than cloud-to-ground lightning; 10 or more cloud flashes may occur before the first one that strikes earth.

Perhaps the most noticeable and fascinating phenomena on earth is cloud-to-ground lightning. This is the archetypical lightning bolt that arcs out of the sky and smites the ground with a great, flickering flash of light. Cloud-to-ground lightning is the sudden release of built-up charge stored in an electric field. However, what triggers this type of lightning remains a mystery. Hence the following form of lightning.

In order to learn what exactly triggers cloud-to-ground lightning, participants of the Florida Tech Lightning Research Team have created triggered lightning. Lightning expert Pierre Hubert writes, “Triggering lightning at will, at a predetermined place and time, is the old Promethean dream which seems more related to legend than to science.” The technique used at Florida Tech has taught scientists much about processes and effects of lightning. We launch rockets using a strong enough propellant to launch them 700 yards into the atmosphere in two seconds. The rockets are attached with long copper wires to conduct electricity (much like what Benjamin Franklin did) to create cloud-to-ground lightning. From 2000 feet up, the wires trigger lightning with a cloud-to-ground distance larger than the Empire State building. When the lightning strikes the ground, it creates over 100 million volts that zap the array of test equipment on the ground. This allows us to study the data collected and form new hypothesizes about Lightning.

Benjamin Franklin and a Early Theory of Lightning

Now with the idea of the different forms of lightning fresh in our head, let’s take a look at the experiment performed by Benjamin Franklin and the early theories of lightning. Franklin’s kite and key experiment performed in 1752 is arguably the most famous in scientific history. He wanted to prove that lightning was a form of electricity and not a form of punishment given by God. In his experiment, he tied a copper key to the bottom of the string attached to a kite. Then, he flew his kite during a thunder storm. Lightning struck the kite and caused the copper key to create a spark. The spark was generated because electricity has a negative charge and the key has a positive charge. Assuming that enough energy is present, two objects of different charges that interact with each other will create a spark. As a result, lightning is a form of electricity.

In more modern terms, a spark is generated when positive and negative charges build up enough energy so that they leap through the air to reach other. Take for example, a negatively charged ball and a positively charged rod. When the charge between the ball and the rod become strong enough, a spark is generated and cuts a pathway through the air.

Early scientists such as Thomas- Francois of France, and George Richmann of Russia, were able to take advantage of the results yielded by Franklin’s famous experiment. They proposed a new theory of how lightning is generated through the process of particle discharge. As ice and water particles within clouds collide with each other, the positively charged particles move to the top of the cloud, and the negatively charged particles move to the bottom of a cloud. When the charge above and the charge become strong enough, the particles leap through the air as a bolt of lightning.

Problems Concerning the Early Theory of Lightning

The theory of particle discharge has remained an acceptable explanation for Lightning until recent years. As already noted, there must be enough energy present in order for the different charges to leap through the air and create a spark. This is the problem with the particle discharge theory. After examination of a storm cloud, the strength of the positive and negative charges, and the electric field around them, isn’t enough to create a spark or a bolt of lightning. Dr. Joe Dwyer of Florida Tech has addressed this issue by saying: “The problem is after decades and decades of measurements up in thunderstorms, nobody has ever managed to find an electric field anywhere near that big (to create an electric spark).” If this is the case, where does the extra energy come from needed to create an electric spark or a bolt of lightning?

A New Theory: Runaway Theory

As previously explained, the triggered lightning created at Florida Tech allows physicists to test new hypothesizes. One such theory called runaway breakdown, explains how a thundercloud gains extra energy needed in order to create an electric spark or a lightning bolt. Using the runaway breakdown theory, scientists can make a new model of how lightning is initiated. This model states that the energy inside of a thundercloud, that force of the positive and negative particles, is too weak to generate a spark to initiate lightning. Therefore, the thundercloud must be struck by outside particles. These outside particles are burst of electrons that carry very high energy. With this added energy, a spark can be generated to initiate lightning. Dr. Joe Dwyer describes this process by saying, “You end up with an avalanche of electrons moving near the speed of light. This model will work as long as you have one fast electron to start it off. Similar to the finger that pushes the first domino to get the whole thing started.”

Where on Earth are the Outside Particles?

Through the theory of runaway breakdown, we now know that thunderclouds are struck by outside particles to generate the energy needed to initiate lightning. However, what we don’t know is where these outside particles of a thunderstorm come from. This is where things become interesting. Do they come from molecules splitting apart in our atmosphere? Or do they come from free electrons floating around in the air that collide with a thundercloud? Scientist and researches like Dr. Joe Dwyer, believe that these outsides particles don’t come from the clouds above, or anywhere else on earth for that matter; but from cosmic rays. These cosmic rays are tiny, sub-atomic particles that are ejected from dying stars millions of years ago, and billions of years ago. However, the origin of these cosmic rays is just an idea. How do we test such an idea?

A Unique Signature

We now understand that the idea of lightning is triggered when cosmic rays strike a thundercloud and provides enough energy needed in order to initiate lightning. But how can we prove that cosmic rays, and not some phenomena on earth, provide that energy boost needed to initiate lightning? It turns out that when cosmic rays strike the Earth’s atmosphere, they leave a unique signature in the form of x-rays and gamma rays. Much like how we can test two signatures to find forgery, we can test for the unique signature of x-rays and gamma rays.

At the lightning research center, there are ten sodium iodide detectors strategically positioned so that the triggered lightning will strike them. Once lightning strikes one of these detectors, a crystal inside of it absorbs the x-rays and gamma rays. From there, it’s just a matter of the detector’s instruments measuring the cosmic rays.


After the instruments measure the x-rays and gamma rays, the data is transferred to a computer where it can be viewed. After collecting and viewing the first data results a detector, Dr. Dwyer recalled his first thoughts:

“I actually didn’t think that we were going to see x-rays. The first plot we brought up, there was a nice, little pulse that looked just like an x-ray (figure 1), right at the time the lightning occurred. Well, that’s interesting. That’s probably just a coincidence. What’s the chance of that? So we looked at the next lightning strike, and there was even a bigger pulse (figure 2) , and the next one (figure 3), and the next one (figure 4). Every one had these pulses that looked exactly like x-rays.”

NOTE: Figures and Graphs will be posted as soon as possible

The data is plotted on a graph with the time (measured in microseconds) on the x-axis, and the signal strength (measured in volts) on the y-axis. The red line indicates the amount and magnitude of an x-ray. If a big negative voltage pulse is shown on the graph, it means that a big burst of electrons were absorbed in the detector. With a big burst of electrons detected, it concludes that cosmic rays are in the form of x-rays and gamma rays from outer space.

For instance, in figure 1 the red line has a very small pulse. This indicates that this particular lightning strike had a very low level of x-ray emission. Thus, suggesting that x-rays do not coincide with lightning. However, in figure two, the red line slightly dips and then jumps off of the graph. This strongly suggests that x-rays might coincide with lightning. In figures 3 and 4, the red line dips even more and jumps toward the top of the graph. A greater change in magnitude of the red line indicates that there are x-rays present in lightning. The results measured in figures 2,3, and 4, indicate that figure 1 was just a fluke and that x-rays are linked to the triggering of lightning.

To this date, every strike of lightning that has been measured has shown the presence of x-rays. Therefore, proving that the cosmic rays that provide the energy needed to initiate lightning, are in the form of x-rays and gamma rays from dying stars in space.


As you can see, our knowledge of distant cosmos, millions of miles away, has certainly helped us answer questions about lightning that propagates 6 miles above our heads. Even though they’re far apart from each other, lightning and space might be related to each other. In fact, Dr. Dwyer said, “These cosmic rays might be the link which will connect a dying star, halfway across the galaxy, with lightning.”

Hopefully, when future generations of humans walk on earth, they’ll ponder about the beauty of lightning like the first humans did. But thanks to Florida Tech, the University of Florida, and New Mexico Tech, they’ll be able to answer the question of how lightning is initiated with one phrase: runaway breakdown.

Through the Runaway Breakdown theory, we can conclude that lightning isn’t initiated by the particle discharge within a thundercloud or some strange phenomena on earth. Lightning is initiated by cosmic rays from space that strike a thundercloud and provides enough energy to generate an electric spark, which in effect creates a bolt of lightning.
2  Shuttle Launches / Missions / Shuttle Launches / Missions / The Future and Vison for Space Exploration on: March 30, 2009, 07:55:51 AM
What if we were no longer limited only to what we can lift from Earth's surface? Suppose we could live off of the land in space, what would the advent of this scenario mean for future exploration and use of space? Here, I take an inside approach to the future and vision for space exploration to the Moon, Mars, and Beyond...

The human part of the space program has been trapped in stasis for the last 20 years with precious little exploration being accomplished. Worse, we have been locked in low-Earth orbit with no plans to go beyond, even though robotic space exploration passed that horizon years ago. The International Space Station (ISS) could have served as a test bed for farther destination, but didn't largely due to a result of conscious policy decisions. The tragic loss of the space shuttle Columbia in 2003 only drew attention to the hollowness and lack of direction of our space policy.

The President's new vision proposes that the space shuttle be returned to flight to complete the construction of the ISS and then be retired prior to a costly and risky recertification. A new vehicle will be designed and built for human spaceflight, one which can adapt to different kinds of missions going to various destinations. We will conduct robotic exploration of the Moon in preparation for the resumption of human exploration by the middle of the next decade and use the knowledge and capabilities created from these activities to venture beyond, including human missions to Mars.

New Missions and the Vision: A Return to the Moon

The initial steps in our return to the Moon involve a robotic orbiter, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), which will be launched in 2008 and will orbit the Moon for at least 2 years. The purpose of this mission is to collect critical information that will pave the way for human return to the Moon. To that end, the LRO will collect detailed data on the Moon's topography in addition to characterizing exotic environments such as the lunar polar regions.

The experiments and others will provide key strategic data to help plan for habitation on and use of the Moon. We have reason to believe that water ice deposits may exist in the permanently dark regions near the lunar poles. However, we do not know the physical state of these deposits, nor do we have a good idea of their quantity.

Before LRO flies, India plans to send a spacecraft, Chandrayaan-1, to the Moon in early 2008. Mini-SAR (synthetic aperture radar) is an imaging radar experiment that will fly on this spacecraft in order to map the dark regions of both poles of the Moon. Along with other topographic and morphologic data, these missions will allow us to map the ice deposits of the poles, determine their physical setting, and estimate their abundance.

Lunar ice is valuable both to human life and to develop spacing-faring infrastructure. Water can be purified and used as an outpost and broken down into its component hydrogen and oxygen and as rocket propellant. The ability to make rocket propellant on the Moon has potential to completely alter the current model of spaceflight.

The LRO mission will be followed by other robotic missions to the Moon that can include both orbiters and landers. A series of small spacecraft, or microsats, in lunar orbit can create a communications and navigations infrastructure for the Moon. These microsats can provide continuous communications with areas out of sight from Earth and positional information for both orbital and surface navigation around the Moon. For landers, we can explore the surface using rovers and deliver robotic payloads to begin developing the surface infrastructure near a future outpost. Rovers can access the dark floors of polar craters, gathering detailed information on the ice deposits.

In parallel with this program of annual robotic exploration, the Crew Exploration Vehicle, a replacement for the shuttle, will be developed and tested. No later than the year 2020, humans will return to the Moon using the knowledge gained and the equipment placed by the robotic precursors. Returning to use the Moon's resources will enable us to build a space transportation infrastructure in lunar space. Such a system that allows routine access to the Moon and all points in between is a fundamental step forward in creating a true space-faring capability. A system that can routinely land on the Moon, refuel, and return to Earth orbit while bringing with it fuel and consumables produced on the lunar surface will give us the ability to journey to Mars and beyond.

Paving the Way to Human Exploration on Mars

Although the presidential vision did not set a deadline for the first human mission to Mars, it did affirm the continuation and extension of the existing robotic exploration program. Over the past decade, a robotic exploration strategy has been developed for Mars that emphasizes the characterization and history of water on the planet. A series of orbital and lander missions will offer increasingly sophisticated opportunities to trace the evolution and fate of water in martian geological history. Ground-penetrating radar can map the distribution of ground ice many yards below the surface. Drill holes can allow us access to the subsurface into which sensitive instruments can be lowered to measure and characterize the volatiles present. Spectrometers and other devices can determine surface and subsurface mineralogy, including the state and concentration of water-bearing objects.

Long-range rovers, martian aircraft, balloons, and other vehicles can all return critical information on martian history and processes. Beyond the purely scientific areas of interest, we need to collect data on the surface conditions and environment of Mars in addition to possible toxicological hazards of the surface materials before any human landings. As with the robotic mission series that precedes human arrival on the Moon, the martian precursors will map the surface in detail, document landing hazards, measure the chemistry and physical properties of the surface, and determine the nature of potential chemical or biological hazards to human explorers.
3  Solar System / Planets / Re: Craters Reveal Ice in Martian Dust on: March 30, 2009, 07:46:33 AM
The "icy" patches can't be seen by the main cameras, which are perched atop a spindly mast about 7 feet off the ground. Instead, they came to light when spotted by a monochromatic camera mounted near the 8-foot-long robotic arm's scoop. When the team used this robotic-arm camera, or RAC, to peek underneath, they were stunned to see that the descent engines' exhaust had cleared away the topmost few inches of dirt to reveal three flat areas, each roughly a foot across.

Peter Smith, the mission's chief scientist, said someone exclaimed "Holy cow!" when this remarkable image first appeared on monitors at the science-operations center in Tucson, Arizona — and that's what they've been calling this area ever since. Uwe Keller, who heads the RAC team, notes that the extended flat areas suggest that the ice exists as an extended "table" just a few inches down.

Phoenix's scientists had suspected that the landing area would be especially ice rich. A global "prospecting map" compiled by the orbiting Mars Odyssey implied that this location, at 68.2°N, 125.7°W, would yield abundant ice within inches of the surface. (Smith had even dubbed this region the "Sweet Spot" when he proposed the Phoenix mission to NASA.)

Moreover, simulations conducted two months ago at NASA's Ames Research Center predicted that Phoenix's powerful pulsed engines would strip away the topsoil as it landed to reveal the barely hidden ice layer. "It's a gleeful day," smiled Smith during a telephone hookup with reporters over the weekend. "We'd worried that the ice might lie 40 or 50 cm [16 to 20 inches] down," which would be near the limit of the arm's reach.

The ice has to be frozen water, not frozen carbon dioxide (dry ice), because temperatures at the landing site range from -30° to -80°C (-22° to -112°F) — incredibly cold, yet too warm to sustain CO2 ice. (You can check out the lander's weather reports here.)

Unfortunately, even the agile, four-jointed arm won't be able to get much closer to the underbelly area. Instead, its camera has concentrated on an icy patch near the footpad dubbed "Snow Queen." Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) mounted next to the camera can bathe the ground near it in red, green, and blue light, which should allow the RAC team to reconstruct color images.

Meanwhile, on Sunday, Phoenix's seventh Martian day (or "sol") on the ground, the robotic arm successfully practiced scooping up some loose soil. That's paved the way for gathering the first shovelful for testing by the two miniaturized laboratories on board. The first of these to get a "taste" of Mars will be the Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA), despite problems with a heating filament that's forced a switch to its backup.

Also awaiting a sample is the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA), actually a cluster of four tools that will subject the ruddy soil to a series of tests.

Image (you must be logged in to view): This fresh crater has dredged up barely buried water ice and splashed it onto the Martian surface. The HiRISE camera aboard NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter recorded this color close-up on November 1.
4  Solar System / Planets / Craters Reveal Ice in Martian Dust on: March 30, 2009, 07:41:36 AM
When it comes to planets, there's a fundamental reality: Cratering happens.

Things slam into other things and make holes all the time. Big or small, old or new, simple or complex, impacts are the most ubiquitous geologic features in our solar system. Roughly 1,600 named craters (and countless lesser pits) scar the Moon's ancient surfaces. On Earth, where wind and water continually wear down the land, the census of confirmed impact craters stands at just 176.

Mars, a mixed bag of ancient and modern terrains, lies somewhere in between. Over the years spacecraft have glimpsed ever-finer features in the Martian landscape. These days, the HiRISE camera aboard NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) can pick out objects only 1 foot (0.3 m) in size; the High Resolution Stereo Camera on the European Space Agency's Mars Express is no slouch either, with a ground resolution of 7 feet (2 m).

So HiRISE researchers were elated, but not particularly surprised, to discover some small, freshly gouged craters in images taken last year. Seen at five sites over a latitude range of 43° to 56° north, the excavations are typically 10 to 20 feet across and a foot or two deep. How fresh is fresh? One cluster must have appeared sometime between June and August, and a somewhat larger pit showed up between January and September.

What did astound the team were splashes of white seen in and around a handful of these craterlets. Could it be water ice? Colleagues operating the spacecraft's CRISM instrument soon confirmed, for the one case large enough to yield a spectrum, that it was! Apparently fist-size impactors had punched into a layer of ice hidden by a foot-deep topping of dust.

In the months that followed, these snowy splashes gradually faded from view. Water ice isn't stable at the craters' latitudes, so most likely it gradually sublimated (vaporized) into the atmosphere, leaving behind veneer of any dust that had been mixed with it. The disappearing act might also be due in part to a coating of dust blown in from the atmosphere. Either way, notes HiRISE investigator Shane Byrne (University of Arizona), the icy deposits had to be at least a couple of inches (several centimeters) thick, and they couldn't have been unearthed from more than a foot or two down.

Byrne announced these findings today at a meeting of solar-system specialists in Houston, Texas. He points out that prior surveys, particularly one done by the neutron spectrometer aboard NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter, show that vast reservoirs of ice lay barely buried across most of the planet's polar and mid-latitude regions.

But scientists are only now realizing just how near the surface the ice lies — and how easily it can be reached. When NASA's Phoenix lander dropped onto a northern polar plain last May, its braking engine blew off a few inches of loose dirt and revealed slabs of nearly pure ice.

The irony in all this is that the Viking 2 lander, which arrived in September 1976, sits just 500 miles (800 km) southeast of the ice-splashed craterlet shown above, and scientists now realize that a layer of water ice almost certainly lies not far beneath its footpads. "It's probably just tens of centimeters down," says HiRISE team leader Alfred McEwen. Had Viking's sampling scoop been able to dig a little deeper, he adds, "we might have sampled ice on Mars 30 years ago."
5  Pictures / Galaxies / Re: Ortega .8m Telescope Images on: March 22, 2009, 10:26:06 AM
More images from the Ortega telescope by Rob Wilkos.  (Note: You must log in or register to view these pictures)

Top image: M42--Orion Nebula
Bottom image: M104--the Sombrero galaxy
6  Shuttle Launches / Missions / Shuttle Launches / Missions / Re: STS-119 Launch Tonight on: March 17, 2009, 08:05:04 PM
You must log-in or register to view these pictures.

Credit: Rob Wilkos

7  Pictures / Galaxies / Ortega .8m Telescope Images on: March 06, 2009, 10:10:30 PM
Florida Tech's Ortega telescope was made possible through the generous donations of James and Sara Ortega and a Research Instrumental granted issued by the National Science Foundation.  The telescope was dedicated on April 12, 2008 and now serves as the primary training and research instrument for astronomy faculty and students.

These images were captured by Florida Tech students using the Ortega telescope (You must be signed-in to view these pictures)

Image 1: M110 -- an elliptical spiral galaxy. Credit: Andrew Colson
Image 2: M51 -- the Whirlpool Galaxy. Credit: Rob Wilkos
Image 3: M103 -- an open cluster in the Cassiopeia constellation. Credit: Andrew Colson
Image 4: Comet Lulin. Credit: Rob Wilkos
8  Deep Space Objects / Galaxies / Re: Milky Way may be full of "Earths" on: March 06, 2009, 11:52:50 AM
Update: The Kepler spacecraft and its Delta II rocket are "go" at 10:49 p.m. EST from Launch Complex 17-B at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Weather predictions remain good, with a 95 percent chance of favorable conditions at launch time and a temperature of 64 degrees.

 "This is a historical mission. It's not just a science mission," NASA Associate Administrator Ed Weiler said during a pre-launch news conference.

"It really attacks some very basic human questions that have been part of our genetic code since that first man or woman looked up in the sky and asked the question: Are we alone?"

The spacecraft will look in our Milky Way galaxy for tiny dips in a star's brightness, which can mean an orbiting planet is passing in front of it -- an event called a transit.

 "We won't find E.T., but we might find E.T.'s home," said William Borucki, science principal investigator for the Kepler mission.

About 330 "exoplanets" -- those circling sun-like stars outside the solar system -- have been discovered since the first was confirmed in 1995.

Most are gas giants like Jupiter, but some have been classified as "super earths," or worlds several times the mass of our planet, said Alan Boss, an astronomer with the Carnegie Institution who serves on the Kepler Science Council. They are too hot to support life, he added, calling them "steam worlds."

(Note: You must be logged in to view these pictures) The top picture is showing the Milky Way region of the sky where the Kepler spacecraft/photometer will be pointing. Each rectangle indicates the specific region of the sky covered by each CCD element of the Kepler photometer. There are a total of 42 CCD elements in pairs, each pair comprising a square. Credit: Carter Roberts / Eastbay Astronomical Society

The bottom picture is a view of the backside of the solar array on the left. The spacecraft and photometer without the sunshade are shown on the right. Credit: NASA and Ball Aerospace.

9  Solar System / Planets / Pluto's Warm Atmosphere on: March 05, 2009, 04:31:04 PM
Pluto, the runt of the solar system, is still a mystery to astronomers in many ways. But thanks to a new study of the dwarf planet's atmosphere, this misunderstood place is a little more known to us now.

Using the European Southern Observatory's (ESO) Very Large Telescope in Chile, researchers made the first ever quantitative measurement of the chemical composition of the atmosphere around Pluto. The study revealed that the dwarf planet's air is warmer, and contains more methane, than previously thought.

The astronomers discovered that Pluto's atmosphere is warmer than its surface — though not by much. The air is a frigid -292 degrees Fahrenheit (-180 degrees Celsius), while the dwarf planet's face is -364 degrees Fahrenheit (-220 degrees Celsius). The researchers think some patches of pure methane in the atmosphere, or perhaps a methane-rich layer covering the surface, create this warming effect.

"Pluto is pretty far out there, so to me it was amazing that we got this data at all," ESO researcher Hans-Ulrich Käufl told "It was well known that Pluto had an atmosphere, but it's really the very first quantitative measurement of it. We were surprised that it is that warm."

Pluto's atmosphere is very different from Earth's: It is a tenuous layer of nitrogen, methane, and carbon monoxide that is only present for part of Pluto's 248-year-long, elongated orbit. When the tiny world gets very far away from the sun, the gaseous atmosphere freezes and falls to the ground. The pressure of Pluto's atmosphere is only about one hundred-thousandth of that on Earth.

"It might look like a vacuum, like on the moon," Käufl said. "At this point we cannot really say if there is haze, but you might see some kind of cirrus clouds. They would be white and gray."

Because of the atmosphere's thin substance, and Pluto's small size and extreme distance, gathering data about the atmosphere before now has been difficult. Previous studies noticed the unique seasonal changes in Pluto's atmosphere as the dwarf planet moves closer and farther away from the Sun.

The team harnessed the Very Large Telescope (VLT)'s strong observing power, adaptive optics technology to reduce blurriness caused by turbulence in Earth's atmosphere, and a high-resolution instrument called a spectrograph to make their measurements.

The CRyogenic InfraRed Echelle Spectrograph (CRIRES) on the VLT separated light from Pluto's atmosphere into its constituent colors, enabling the researchers to tell what elements in the air the light passed through. The new data, which was significantly more detailed than any previous measurements, allowed the researchers to compare their findings to sophisticated computer simulations to understand how different chemicals in the atmosphere affect temperatures.

"The combination of CRIRES and the VLT is almost like having an advanced atmospheric research satellite orbiting Pluto," Käufl said.

Kaufl, with a team led by Emmanuel Lellouch of France's Observatoire de Paris, reported the findings in a paper to be published in the journal Astronomy & Astrophysics.
10  Deep Space Objects / Galaxies / Milky Way may be full of "Earths" on: February 25, 2009, 11:54:26 AM
This article is featured on CNN about NASA searching for Earth-like planets within the Milky Way galaxy:

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